In recent years, climate change has caused frequent weather and climate events, and high temperature records in many places around the world have been broken.Disasters such as heat waves, rainstorms, droughts, and storms have increasingly occurred around the world.
July 11 is the World Population Day.Today in 1987, the world’s population broke the 5 billion mark.The future population growth depends to a large extent on the changes in future fertility.Although the world population exceeds 8 billion in 2022, the fertility rate has become a problem that many countries cannot go around.According to the Forecast of the World Population of 2022, the global fertility rate will drop from 2.3 children in each woman in 2021 to 2.1 in 2050.On January 17 this year, the National Bureau of Statistics of China released the population data of 2022, with a population birth rate of 6.77 ‰. The first 60 years in the Chinese population declined.After that, Japanese Prime Minister Kishida also warned that Japan’s low birth rate and population aging constitute a urgent crisis.The population crisis in South Korea is even more urgent. The country’s total population in 2022 has naturally decreased again. The total fertility rate (the average number of children in a woman’s life) is only 0.78, the lowest at the lowest record of the indicator in 1970 in 1970.level.
The British magazine "Economist" predicts that the growth of the world’s population will be stagnant in the middle of this century.As climatic problems are becoming more severe, climate factors have an increasing impact on people’s fertility choices.If the future climate change makes the world worse and worse, is it still willing to bring their children to this world?
On June 12, 2023, local time, Pakistan faithfulness, the hurricane is approaching, the children are waiting to be transferred to the rescue camp.
A new study published in the "Environmental Sociology" journal in 2022 discussed this thoughtful problem.As the first climate fertility survey for Chinese youth intellectual groups, research found that although most people have not listed climate change as the main factor that may affect their fertility choices, many young Chinese interviewees have potential to them (potential potential (potential) Children’s well -being in the future of climate change expresses deep concerns.
"If there is a child in the future, I love him/her very much, and the world will become worse little by little … I don’t know if I will regret it, bring the child to this world." A 26 -year -old no child has no child yet.The lady said in the questionnaire.
Climate change will exacerbate air pollution, disease epidemic, extreme weather disasters and other incidents.Faced with the uncertainty and negative impact of climate change to the world, the author of the research, Fu Qianyao, a graduate student of Yale University, told the surging news (www.thehpaper.cn), "Knowing and expectations, more young people will consider using the environment and climate as part of fertility. "
However, Xue Tao, a researcher at the School of Public Health at Peking University, believes that environmental factors are not the most important part of individual decisions.He told Peng Mei News, "I don’t think what kind of relationship between life and future climate change, and everyone will be affected, but in individual decisions, we are just one -billionth individual, environmental factors, environmental factorsNot the most important part of individual decisions. "
What is a risk of habitual cluster?
In recent years, the concept of Reproductive Climate Concerns is gradually attracting public discussion and scholars’ attention globally.It is one of the Eco-REPRODUCTIVE CONCERNS.Essence
The Assistant Professor of Environmental Science Research at the National University of Singapore, Matthew Schneider-Mayerson, told Surging News that climate anxiety is gradually becoming a topic of attention from all over the world. Worried that children can be in the world of climate change.Living a good life seems to be a common phenomenon.More and more people have shown deep concern, anxiety and even pain on existing, expected or assumed that children’s possible experience in future climate change.
According to a public opinion survey conducted in the United States in 2020, 14.3%of the American population between 18 and 44 and no children listed climate change as the "main reason" for their "main reasons".And 20.7%of people listed it as "secondary cause".This shows that about 12.5 million children who do not want to have children do not want to give birth is their attention to climate issues.
Worried of birth cluster has been widely discussed in developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, but also in developing countries such as India, the Philippines, and Brazil in recent years.
On September 29, 2021 local time, statistics from the US Census Bureau showed that the population growth rate was only 0.1%from July 2020 to July 2021, the lowest level since the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
In 2021, a research result of a research on a number of universities and research institutions such as the University of Bath, Stanford University, and other universities and research institutions in the United Kingdom, covering more than 10,000 young people in ten countries, shows that the climate crisis brings serious emotional distress to young people, among which of which, of which41%of young people were hesitant to have children.
"Research and public opinion surveys that have been conducted show that almost all people at the age of fertility generally pay attention to the problems of climate change and fertility choices." Professor Ma Xiu said that individuals with different gender, age, political ideology and education level are to some extentFollow this issue.
The first climate-maternity survey sample
As China ’s first special research on young people who have received higher education, Fu Qianyao and others at the end of 2020, through the online questionnaire survey, investigated 173 young people who care or worry about climate change in ChinaEssence
The interviewees are mainly urban residents and women aged 21 to 35. Most of them have been educated undergraduate or above, and one -fifth of them have been parents.Although the number of samples is limited, this study is intended to discuss the multiple associations and two -way impact between climate change and fertility choices, and try to understand the cognition, discussion and action of young people in China on the problems of climate change.
The survey shows that 34.1%of the respondents said that climate change is the "main factor" that affects their fertility choices. 61.8%means that climate change is the "secondary factor" that affects fertility choices. Only 3.4%chose climate change to fertility choices"There is no effect at all."
The questionnaire uses an open question to understand the future expectations of the subject: "What do you think the world will look like in 2050?" In the valid answer collected, 28.3%of the description is positive, 22.5%is a mixed mixedOr neutral, and 49.3%of the description is mainly negative.
The survey shows that the biological and climatic concerns of young people in China are mainly concentrated in the deterioration of the future living environment, threats to physical and mental health, and indirect social, political and economic consequences.
First of all, interviewees worry that the future climate and ecological changes will make the world where children live.For example, a 23 -year -old graduate student said, "(future) extreme weather is becoming more and more frequent, and (I) do not want children to live in the heat wave or cold or have no sun."
Another interviewee from Shanghai said, "For the carbon footprints generated during the growth of fertility, it can be reduced through some means and can be continuously explored. But in the future, my child will face a large climate crisis and environmental change.I am worried about whether it can adapt to such a society and whether it can escape the health problems caused by environmental pollution. "
The second layer of concerns is the impact of climate change on their physical health (even fertility) and children’s physical and mental health.When describing the climate disaster that the child may experience in the future, many respondents mentioned the vital impact of environmental pollution on themselves and the previous generation.
A 40 -year -old father said, "In fact, my father was affected by the health caused by industrial pollution and environmental destruction. I chose to escape from my hometown, but although people can avoid local environmental damage through migration.But climate change is global, and under the nest, there is an egg. "
For many interviewees, environmental pollution is still a problem or memory not long ago. Therefore, the ecological environment degradation that the climate change may bring makes them fear and worry about their children’s future.
Some interviewees are also concerned that climate change will make or exacerbate social and political crises.A 31 -year -old father and consultant wrote: "The indirect impact of climate change, such as the influence of biodiversity, the impact of food security, and conflict between countries that may be triggered, may have an impact on my children’s generation."
Another college student from Beijing believes that in the future of climate change, "international geopolitical conflicts are becoming more and more intense, and the problem of diseases and resource deficiency caused by environmental crisis may become the core of the conflict." In other words, climate change will be directly.Or indirectly affect all aspects of the future nature and social environment, and become a factor that cannot be ignored when raising children.
On June 26, 2023, local time, Washington, USA, the waves were coming, and the children played in the fountain.
Some interviewees stated that under the multiple crisis of ecology, health, and society, it was difficult to take their children to the world responsible.A lady (27 years old) who works in the investment field wrote: "Children may make life complete, but this is their own life. What about the child? If we give birth to the children to bring them war, disaster, disease,With many unknown threats and risks in the society, we should think about it again. Including people who pay attention to climate change and work in the field of climate change, if I can’t act as an example, I can contribute to reducing emission reduction. How much hope does the world still hope? "
The change that is happening
Compared with more difficult and quantitative psychological factors, climate change and environmental issues have some specific answers on how specific fertility will have.
The research team of Zhu Tong and Xue Tao of Peking University published in the "Liuye Knife" sub -published research found that air pollution increases the risk of abortion and death, and exposure during pregnancy exposure to atmospheric fine particles pollution significantly increased the probability of pregnancy failure.
The impact of extreme weather on pregnant women is also obvious.In July last year, the team of Professor Matthew, Professor Matthew of Public Health and Health of Tsinghua University and his collaborators in the "Liuye Knife-Regional Health (Western Pacific)" based on a multi-centered crowd study found that pregnant mothers have found that maternal mothersThe extreme high temperature exposure during the whole pregnancy will significantly increase the risk of premature birth, while the low temperature exposure of the early pregnancy, the third trimester and the week before childbirth will increase the risk of premature birth, and the risk of low temperature exposure during the whole pregnancy is the greatest.
Although climate change will have an impact on fertility and health, Xue Tao, a researcher at the School of Public Health at Peking University, believes that environmental factors are not the most important part of individual decisions.He told Peng Mei News, "I don’t think what kind of relationship between life and future climate change, and everyone will be affected, but in individual decisions, we are just one -billionth individual, environmental factors, environmental factorsNot the most important part of individual decisions. "
On September 3, 2022, local time, Punjab, Pakistan, was sitting in a temporary camp with a Punjab province in Pakistan.
Fu Qianyao’s research also found that climate change seems to be enough to become the main factor when most people consider fertility.More than half of the respondents believe that childcare time, resources and family income are important factors that determine whether they want to have children and have a few children.
Fu Qianyao found in another research paper that children are born or not?Is it more life or less?Both views exist."Although the relationship between climate issues and the relationship between fertility has not yet been concluded, there is a common assumption in public discourse and recent academic research, that is, climate issues will lead to young people with less children.Parents’ investment in environmental politics and environmentalists who regard their children as future environmentalists have stated that environmental considerations may also cause young people to have children, and even more children they may have. "She said.
"Only 22%of the respondents chose environmental pollution, and 15.6%chose climate change. However, climate change may indirectly affect people’s fertility considerations and choices by affecting other society, economy and health factors." SheSaid.
In an interview with surging news, Wang Ying, a second -level psychological counselor who focused on climate change actions, also said, "We may not realize that climate change may indirectly affect our willingness to fertility.reaction."
Wang Ying himself is very concerned about climate change issues and participates in natural environment activities.As a native person who is born by the Yangtze River, she said that she can feel the impact of climate change in the city and environment of her life in recent years. She hopes to understand more knowledge and like like -minded friends to create a better creation to create a better one to create a better one.The environment and experience of natural landscapes do something.
"Climate issues may increase anxiety for some people, but they may not necessarily have such an impact on other people. Instead, they will feel responsible to solve the problem, not to say that they will not give birth." Wang Ying said.
Some interviewees believe that under the context of Chinese society, fertility choices are the result of multiple factors, and the role of climate factor seems to be minimal.
"In Chinese society, many other factors, including social culture, guarantee systems, and personal income. Even if you have experienced fertility, I still feel that the climate is in the face of more important influencing factors."The" Linglong Plan "participants, the co -founder of the one kilogram of the one kilogram of the" Linglong Plan ", and the current CEO Chen Dan said in an interview with the surging news.
Chen Dan believes that for women who want to maintain their careers, there are several "big mountains" in front of fertility choices.In comparison, climate factors do not seem to be worth mentioning.
Chen Dan has been engaged in educational work in rural areas for a long time. When talking about women and children in rural areas, she thinks she is "no perception.""They will feel that climate change has no effect on life. People in the countryside are very accustomed to suffering, and they will accept it calmly." She said.
However, Chen Dan has experienced a huge change in climate change in the past few years.
"The floods in Zhengzhou and Shanxi the previous year gave me a lot of shock. I also realized the severity of climate change. After that, I joined the exquisite plan and worked as a more active action of environmental and climate issues." Chen Chen. "ChenDan said that his own work direction is to tell good education to rural teachers in a more affinity and flat language."I want to bring my experience to climate issues. How to put out the impact of professional climate issues and action plans in the way of being closer to the citizens, making them feel that this is related to me ‘."
On December 19, 2022, local time, Somalimore, a child received malnutrition screening at the clinic of Baya.
Extreme weather is becoming more and more frequent, and the many uncertainty brought by climate change. Environmental pollution, ecological deterioration, unknown viruses, food safety, soreness, and sores … What will the future world look like under multiple crises?How should we seek a balance point in the face of climate and fertility?
In this regard, Professor Matthew believes that the main method of relieving fertility and climate concerns is that the government promises and implements the transformation actions required for climate crisis."Most governments have failed to pass the test of the climate. If they begin to take measures, I believe that fertility and climate concern will decrease or even disappear."
As a pioneer focusing on the direction of climate change action, Wang Ying said that extreme weather is alarm bell. In terms of environmental protection and energy conservation and emission reduction, it can only be said that it can be advocated by the canopy, and cannot use his own standards to ask others."We can’t just spread climate anxiety, we should pay attention to how to deal with and solve this problem."
"The top -down system changes and the bottom -up personal actions can slow down and adapt to climate change is an important subject of the human world, and it will also directly affect the joint choice of the survival of the future generation." Fu Qianyao saidAlthough the government and enterprises are generally considered to be the main undertaking of the responsibility of climate change, young people have not given up their own energy.
For four consecutive years, South Sudan was attacked by floods, and the crisis intensified. A woman held her malnourished son.
Faced with the huge uncertainty brought by climate change, and the followers of ritual climate, they explore the definition of sustainable life and the possibility of different future from their lifestyle, consumption habits, and their own jobs.Fu Qianyao said, "Although there is no way to change for the time being, but unconsciously will have something to do with each of us. Climate change will make more backgrounds in different industries. HoweverThe possibility. "
(Intern Liu Zhuoer and Huo Yan also contributed to this article)